Introduction for Economics | The Knowledge Dynasty

Introduction for Economics

The first reason to study economics is that it will help you understand the world in which you live. There are many questions about the economy that might spark your curiosity. Why are apartments so hard to find in New York City? Why do airlines charge less for a round-trip ticket if the traveler stays over a Saturday night? Why is Johnny Depp paid so much to star in movies? Why are living standards so meager in many African countries? Why do some countries have high rates of inflation while others have stable prices? Why are jobs easy to find in some years and hard to find in others? These are just a few of the questions that a course in economics will help you answer. The second reason to study economics is that it will make you a more astute participant in the economy. As you go about your life, you make many economic decisions. While you are a student, you decide how many years to stay in school. Once you take a job, you decide how much of your income to spend, how much to save, and how to invest your savings. Someday you may find yourself running a small business or a large corporation, and you will decide what prices to charge for your products. The insights developed in the coming chapters will give you a new perspective on how best to make these decisions. Studying economics will not by itself make you rich, but it will give you some tools that may help in that endeavor.

Economics is the study of how society manages its scarce resources. In most societies, resources are allocated not by an all-powerful dictator but through the combined actions of millions of households and firms. Economists therefore study how people make decisions: how much they work, what they buy, how much they save, and how they invest their savings. Economists also study how people interact with one another. For instance, they examine how the multitude of buyers and sellers of a good together determine the price at which the good is sold and the quantity that is sold. Finally, economists analyze forces and trends that affect the economy as a whole, including the growth in average income, the fraction of the population that cannot find work, and the rate at which prices are rising.

The study of economics has many facets, but it is unified by several central ideas. Because the behavior of an economy reflects the behavior of the individuals who make up the economy, we begin our study of economics with following principles of individual decision making.

People Face Trade-offs
The Cost of Something Is What You Give Up to Get It
Rational People Think at the Margin
People Respond to Incentives
Trade Can Make Everyone Better Off
Markets Are Usually a Good Way to Organize Economic Activity
Governments Can Sometimes Improve Market Outcomes
A Country’s Standard of Living Depends on Its Ability to Produce Goods and Services
Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money
Society Faces a Short-Run Trade-off between Inflation and Unemployment.

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